Winching is a popular term among the 4X4 off-road driving buffs. While a winch can be a lifesaver when your vehicle gets stuck in mud or sand, every winching situation can be a potential accident risk. Using a winch without proper safety precautions and user practices can cause severe injuries or may even lead to fatal mishaps.
Whether or not you are a 4X4 off-road driving enthusiast, learning how to use a winch, its safety basics, and maintenance can be of great help. That’s what you’ll learn in this short guide.
A. Winch Basics
A winch is a simple mechanical device that allows you to pull in or let out a wire rope. It essentially helps you to adjust the tension of a winch line, usually made from steel. Although manually operated winches are still in use, electrical models are now more prevalent.
You will need to understand how does a winch work to use it safely. A typical winching machine (electrical variant) consists of the following parts with each component playing a specific role.
1) Brake: The brake stops the winch from paying an unwanted winch line. In electrically powered winching equipment, the brake automatically engages the moment you turn off the motor.
2) Clutch: The clutch allows you to control the winch drum rolling. When you disengage the clutch, the drum detaches from the gear train, letting it rotate freely (free spooling). After engaging the clutch, the drum locks into the gear train again, stopping it from free-spooling. Once the clutch gets engaged, you can start winching.
3) Control Box: The control box houses all the electronic components of the winching system. Most winching machines now come with a waterproof control box. It is often placed on the winch itself or next to it. The control box relays the signals from the remote control to the motor.
4) Drum: It is a hollow metal cylinder. When you turn on the motor, the drum starts rolling, wrapping the wire rope around it. You can use the remote to change the direction in which the drum rolls.
5) Fairlead or Wire Lead: As the name suggests, fairlead or wire lead guides the wire rope as it wraps around the drum. The purpose of a fairlead is to minimize the damage to the wire rope as it goes through a winch mount or bumper. The two most common winch leads are roller fairlead and hawse fairlead.
6) Gear Train: The gear train is the connecting piece between the electric motor and the gear system in a winch. It transforms the electrical energy into a powerful mechanical force, which allows you to pull heavy objects using a winch.
7) Motor: The purpose of an electric motor is to power the gear system in a winch. The gear system is connected to the winch drum, which winds the wire rope when you turn on the motor. Usually, you can use your vehicle’s battery to power the motor.
8) Remote Control: The remote control helps you control the winching process (the directions in which the drum rolls). Furthermore, the remote control allows you to stand clear of the winch and the wire rope, reducing the risk of an accident. Modern winch systems come with a wired or wireless remote control.
9) Winch Line or Wire Rope: The wire rope or winch line is usually made of a steel cable or synthetic ropes. The type of rope material, diameter, and length will determine how much load the winch machine can pull. The wire rope is looped at the end to attach a hook.
B. Things to Do Before You Start
Although winching seems cool, you can’t take it lightly. Before you start pulling your vehicle using a winch, you need to do the following.
• Assess the situation thoroughly and plan your winching accordingly.
• Make sure to use safety gloves as they will protect your hands from lacerations and cuts.
• Keep a hook strap with you and use it when pulling a hook from the winch. It’ll also protect your hands.
• Use D-shackles as they are the best and safest way to connect a winch to the anchor.
• Make sure the same person (you) handles both the wire rope and the remote control.
• If possible, buy a winch kit as it includes everything you need for a proper recovery.
• Never use a recovery strap for winching. It is a potential safety hazard.
• Check if your vehicle’s battery will be able to handle the additional load.
• Even though you are wearing gloves, don’t let the winch rope slide through your hands. It can still cause injuries.
• Always take your time before and after you have set up the winching assembly. Triple check everything before you start pulling your vehicle.
• Make sure to practice winching, especially if you have not used it before.
C. How to Use a Winch
Using a winch requires a proper setup, which you can learn with practice. The three primary stages involved in using a winch are as follows:
1) Rigging the Winch
First, you will need to rig the winch properly to a suitable anchor. Follow these winch rigging techniques for a smooth operation.
• Put on your gloves as safety always comes first.
• If you have a wired remote control, connect it to the winch.
• Make sure to run the remote-control cable to your driver’s seat if possible. Never operate it from near the winch.
• Next, find a suitable anchor point. In most off-road driving situations, it’s usually a tree, rock, or another vehicle.
• Make sure the anchor is strong enough to pull your vehicle.
• Now, release the wire rope by disengaging the deploy lever and pull it to the anchor point.
• Place a tree trunk protector around the anchor point for safe and efficient winching.
• Hook the D-shackle through the two loops of the tree-trunk protector without tightening it too much.
• Insert the winch rope hook into the D-shackle. Make sure the tip is facing up.
• Engage or lock the clutch to prevent the wire rope from spooling out of the winch.
• Using the winch remote control, slowly pull the winch rope until its tout.
2) Getting Your Vehicle Out with Winch Pull
Before you start the winch pull, make sure to clear the whole area. Ask everyone to move to a safe distance because winching accidents can be fatal.
• After clearing the area, get into the driver’s seat of your vehicle.
• Strap on the seat belt.
• Press the remote-control button to start winching your vehicle slowly.
• You can release the button every few seconds to ensure slow and steady winching.
• You can also press the gas paddle to help your vehicle move smoothly.
• Once you reach the stable ground, stop the winch pull.
• Turn off the remote control before stepping out of your vehicle.
3) Unrigging the Winch
Before stepping out, move your vehicle forward gently. It will release the tension from the taut wire rope. You can now step out and start un-rigging the winch.
• First, you will need to unhook the winch rope from the D-shackle.
• Rewind the winch cable with the help of the remote.
• You can hold the wire rope in your hands and walk towards the winch as it rewinds.
• Unplug the winch remote control.
• Remove the D-shackle and the tree-trunk protector.
• Keep all three items in a safe and dry place in your vehicle.
D. Winch Rigging Techniques
Depending on the situation, you will need to use a suitable rigging technique. The three basic winch rigging techniques you can use are:
1) Single Line
It is the simplest and most common winch rigging technique. You will need an anchor point, D-shackle, and tree trunk protector (or a strap).
• You can follow the rigging steps mentioned in the previous point.
• Start pulling your vehicle slowly until it reaches stable ground.
2) Double Line
With this winch rigging technique, you can increase your pulling power over short distances. In addition to the usual winching accessories, you will also need a snatch block.
• Connect the snatch block to a tree trunk protector.
• Run the winch wire through the snatch block.
• Attach the winch rope to the tow hook on your vehicle or its frame.
• Don’t over-tighten the shackle.
• Winch your vehicle slowly and carefully.
3) Triple Line
The triple line winching technique uses the same principle as the double line. However, you have to maintain a 90-degree angle between the winch and the first anchor.
• Attach the snatch block to the first anchor point.
• Run the winch rope through the snatch block.
• Secure rope back to the vehicle using a screw pin shackle. Keep it as close to the winch as possible.
• Run the wire rope to the final anchor point.
• Use a choker chain for trees to secure the winch rope to the second anchor.
• Clean the debris if there is any.
• After checking all connections, you can start pulling the vehicle slowly.
E. Dos and Don’ts of Winching
When using a winch, you have to consider several different factors. Here are a few critical dos and don’ts that you must follow if you want to use a winch safely.
• Use eye protection in addition to the safety gloves. Also, remove all jewelry or lose clothing before using a winch.
• Make sure to re-spool the winch rope under load, especially if you are using the winch for the first time. It will prevent the outer layers of the steel rope from getting pulled down between the inner layers.
• Keep Your hands away from wire rope, hooks, D-shackles, and fairlead opening while operating a winch to avoid injuries.
• Use frame-mounted two points instead of winch hooks as they can better withstand tugs, yanks, or pulls.
• Always use a tree trunk protector. The winch line will damage the tree and jeopardize your safety in the process.
• Always wrap the tree trunk protector around the base of the tree. Otherwise, you risk pulling down the tree on your vehicle. Also, avoid using trees standing at a weird angle.
• Check all connections carefully before you start pulling your vehicle.
• If you are using a rock as an anchor, make sure it is big enough to withstand the force of pulling your vehicle.
• Drape a blanket or a heavy cloth over a tout winch cable to prevent you from injuries in case the cable snaps.
• Do learn and use the proper hand signals if more than one person is going to operate a winch.
• Do take your time. Winching in a hurry may result in oversights, which might lead to fatal accidents.
• Never use a winch with less than five rounds of steel rope wrapped around the drum. It can damage the winch system as the rope attachment is not strong enough to hold the load.
• Don’t route electric cables around sharp edges, hot parts of the vehicle, or moving parts of the winch.
• Don’t keep the remote control plugged-in when free spooling, rigging, or sitting idle.
• Never use a winch for towing.
• Don’t put a winch in water.
• Never use hooks with increased throat openings.
• Never touch the winch rope when it is tout.
• Don’t engage or disengage a winch when the wire rope is under tension or the drum is moving.
• Don’t use a winch to secure a load for transport. It will damage the winch.
• Avoid sideloading because D-shackles are designed to hold a load at 90-degrees.
• Never use a winch at angles. It’s best to pull your vehicle straight to avoid accidents.
F. Winch Accessories You Must Have
As you may have understood by now, winching equipment alone isn’t enough to pull your vehicle from mud or a swamp. You are going to need a few accessories to ensure safe winching. Make sure to keep the following accessories with you when you go on an off-road adventure.
1) Choker Chain: You can use choker chains to connect wire rope to anchors with sharp edges such as rocks. However, they are harmful to trees.
2) D-Shackles: You will need D-shackles to connect lopped ends of the wire rope, tree trunk protectors, chain snatch blocks, and cables.
3) Protective Gloves: Gloves will protect your hands from barbed steel winch wires. Make sure to use gloves that fit perfectly. Loose gloves can get entangled in a winch, resulting in injuries.
4) Shovel: You can use a shovel to flatten the terrain or remove debris from your vehicle’s path.
5) Snatch Block: A chain snatch block can help increase pulling capacity and change your pulling direction without damaging the wire rope.
6) Tow Hook: Tow hooks are attachment points for chains, straps, and wire hooks. They are usually affixed to the vehicle’s frame.
7) Tree Trunk Protector: Usually made from high-quality nylon, a tree trunk protector is essentially a strap that you can wrap around tree trunks. You can connect it to a steel rope using a D-shackle.
8) Winch Kit: Depending on the manufacturer, you will get different tools in a winch kit, generally available in durable and weatherproof bags.
9) Winch Line Damper: You will need to use a winch line damper or a heavy blanket to prevent the wire rope from recoiling if it snaps. Make sure to place it on the winch rope (in the middle) before it goes under tension.
10) Winch Line Extensions: With these, you can extend the reach of a winch line. Usually, these are flat straps made from non-stretch polyester.
You must keep a winch system in excellent working condition. Lack of maintenance can lead to failure, which may translate into vehicle damage and/or accident.
• Make sure to check the wire rope carefully before and after each use.
• Remove kinked or frayed wire ropes from service immediately.
• Also, replace damaged winch hook and hook pins.
• Keep your winch, wire rope, and remote control away from contaminants, harmful chemicals, and water.
• Unwind the winch and use a clean rag or cloth to wipe it after each use.
• You should also oil the wire rope and winch hook regularly to prevent corrosion.
• If your winch has come in contact with water, get it serviced by a professional immediately.
• Ensure the necessary precautions and maintenance tips provided in the manufacturer’s manual.
• Before each use, check all battery cables and electrical connections. Keep them clean and tight-fitting.
• Always check the remote control for any damage.
• Check the entire winch for any dust or debris and clean it thoroughly.
Before we wrap up, let’s take a look at a few FAQs about how does a winch work and how you can use it safely.
1) Where Do You Stand When Winching?
You need to stand at a safe distance away from the wire rope if you are not handling the winch, preferably behind a tree or a rock. Never mount the winch rope or touch it after it is tout. Also, don’t stand between the anchor point and your vehicle once the wire rope is under tension. If you are operating a winch, stay in your driver’s seat with the remote control in your hand.
2) What Strength Winch Do I Need?
Usually, heavier vehicles will need a more powerful winch. The general practice is to double the weight of your vehicle. However, the winch strength should be at least 1.5 times the gross weight of your vehicle. So, if your car weighs around 4000 pounds, you will need a winch system with 6000-8000 pound pulling strength.
3) How Do You Calculate Winch Size?
Generally, the bigger the winch, the better. However, you can find several online calculators to help you find the suitable winch size. Make sure to take manufacturer’s guidelines into account as well.
4) How Much Weight Can a Winch Pull?
It depends on the size and strength of the winch. Generally, a winch has 1.5 times the pulling power of the load. So, if your winch has a Rated Line Pull or RLP of 9000 pounds, it can pull a car weighing up to 6000 pounds.
5) How Do You Increase the Speed of a Winch?
You can increase the voltage of your winch motor to increase its speed.
As you can probably see, winching is a vast topic. Learning different winching techniques requires time, patience, and practice. While this guide will help you clarify your winching basics, you will need to rely on your cognitive skills to assess the situation carefully. Make sure to pay careful attention to every possible detail before proceeding with the winching. If you still have doubts or want to know more about winching process and accessories like wire ropes and hooks, contact our experts right away.